Albanian Constitution Preamble
We, the people of Albania, proud and aware of our history, with responsibility for the future, and with faith in God and/or other universal values,
with determination to build a social and democratic state based on the rule of law, and to guarantee the fundamental human rights and freedoms,
with a spirit of tolerance and religious coexistence,
with the pledge for the protection of human dignity and personhood, as well as for the prosperity of the whole nation, for peace, well-being, culture and social solidarity,
with the centuries-old aspiration of the Albanian people for national identity and unity,
with a deep conviction that justice, peace, harmony and cooperation among nations are among the highest values of humanity,
We establish this Constitution:
Part One--Basic Principles Article 1
1. Albania is a parliamentary republic.
2. The Republic of Albania is a unitary and indivisible state.
3. Governance is based on a system of elections that are free, equal, general and periodic.Article 2
1. Sovereignty in the Republic of Albania belongs to the people.
2. The people exercise sovereignty through their representatives or directly.
3. For the maintenance of peace and national interests, the Republic of Albania may take part in a system of collective security, on the basis of a law approved by a majority of all the members of the Assembly.Article 3
The independence of the state and the integrity of its territory, dignity of the individual, human rights and freedoms, social justice, constitutional order, pluralism, national identity and inheritance, religious coexistence, as well as coexistence with, and understanding of Albanians for, minorities are the bases of this state, which has the duty of respecting and protecting them.Article 4
1. The law constitutes the basis and the boundaries of the activity of the state.
2. The Constitution is the highest law in the Republic of Albania.
3. The provisions of the Constitution are directly applicable, except when the Constitution provides otherwise.Article 5
The Republic of Albania applies international law that is binding upon it.Article 6
The organization and functioning of the organs contemplated by this Constitution are regulated by their respective laws, except when this Constitution provides otherwise.Article 7
The system of government in the Republic of Albania is based on the separation and balancing of legislative, executive and judicial powers.Article 8
1. The Republic of Albania protects the national rights of the Albanian people who live outside its borders.
2. The Republic of Albania protects the rights of its citizens with a temporary or permanent residence outside its borders.
3. The Republic of Albania assures assistance for Albanians who live and work abroad in order to preserve and develop their ties with the national cultural inheritance.Article 9
1. Political parties are created freely. Their organization shall conform with democratic principles.
2. Political parties and other organizations, the programs and activity of which are based on totalitarian methods, which incite and support racial, religious, regional or ethnic hatred, which use violence to take power or influence state policies, as well as those with a secret character, are prohibited pursuant to the law.
3. The financial sources of parties as well as their expenses are always made public.Article 10
1. In the Republic of Albania there is no official religion.
2. The state is neutral in questions of belief and conscience, and also, it guarantees the freedom of their expression in public life.
3. The state recognizes the equality of religious communities.
4. The state and the religious communities mutually respect the independence of one another and work together for the good of each of them and for all.
5. Relations between the state and religious communities are regulated on the basis of agreements entered into between their representatives and the Council of Ministers. These agreements are ratified by the Assembly.
6. Religious communities are juridical persons. They have independence in the administration of their properties according to their principles, rules and canons, to the extent that interests of third parties are not infringed.Article 11
1. The economic system of the Republic of Albania is based on private and public property, as well as on a market economy and on freedom of economic activity.
2. Private and public property are equally protected by law.
3. Limitations on the freedom of economic activity may be established only by law and for important public reasons.Article 12
1. The armed forces secure the independence of the country, as well as protect its territorial integrity and constitutional order.
2. The armed forces maintain neutrality in political questions and are subject to civilian control.
3. No foreign military force may be situated in, or pass through, the Albanian territory, as well no Albanian military force may be sent abroad, except by a law approved by a majority of all members of the Assembly.Article 13
Local government in the Republic of Albania is founded upon the basis of the principle of decentralization of power and is exercised according to the principle of local autonomy.Article 14
1. The official language in the Republic of Albania is Albanian.
2. The national flag is red with a two-headed black eagle in the center.
3. The seal of the Republic of Albania presents a red shield with a black, two-headed eagle in the center. At the top of the shield, in gold color, is the helmet of Skanderbeg.
4. The national anthem is "United Around Our Flag."
5. The National Holiday of the Republic of Albania is Flag Day, November 28.
6. The capital city of the Republic of Albania is Tirana.
7. The form and dimensions of the national symbols, the content of the text of the national anthem, and their use shall be regulated by law.
Part Two--The Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms
Chapter I--General PrinciplesArticle 15
1. The fundamental human rights and freedoms are indivisible, inalienable, and inviolable and stand at the basis of the entire juridical order.
2. The organs of public power, in fulfillment of their duties, shall respect the fundamental rights and freedoms, as well as contribute to their realization.Article 16
1. The fundamental rights and freedoms and the duties contemplated in this Constitution for Albanian citizens are also valid for foreigners and stateless persons in the territory of the Republic of Albania, except for cases when the Constitution specifically attaches the exercise of particular rights and freedoms with Albanian citizenship.
2. The fundamental rights and freedoms and the duties contemplated in this Constitution are valid also for juridical persons so long as they comport with the general purposes of these persons and with the core of these rights, freedoms and duties.Article 17
1. The limitation of the rights and freedoms provided for in this Constitution may be established only by law for a public interest or for the protection of the rights of others. A limitation shall be in proportion with the situation that has dictated it.
2. These limitations may not infringe the essence of the rights and freedoms and in no case may exceed the limitations provided for in the European Convention on Human Rights.Article 18
1. All are equal before the law.
2. No one may be unjustly discriminated against for reasons such as gender, race, religion, ethnicity, language, political, religious or philosophical beliefs, economic condition, education, social status, or ancestry.
3. No one may be discriminated against for reasons mentioned in paragraph 2 if reasonable and objective legal grounds do not exist.Article 19
1. Everyone born of at least one parent with Albanian citizenship gains automatically Albanian citizenship. Albanian citizenship is gained also for other reasons provided by law.
2. An Albanian citizen may not lose his citizenship, except when he gives it up.Article 20
1. Persons who belong to national minorities exercise in full equality before the law the human rights and freedoms.
2. They have the right to freely express, without prohibition or compulsion, their ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic belonging. They have the right to preserve and develop it, to study and to be taught in their mother tongue, as well as unite in organizations and societies for the protection of their interests and identity.
Chapter II--Personal Rights and FreedomsArticle 21
The life of a person is protected by law.Article 22
1. Freedom of expression is guaranteed.
2. The freedom of the press, radio and television are guaranteed.
3. Prior censorship of a means of communication is prohibited.
4. The law may require the granting of authorization for the operation of radio or television stations.Article 23
1. The right to information is guaranteed.
2. Everyone has the right, in compliance with law, to get information about the activity of state organs, as well as of persons who exercise state functions.
3. Everybody is given the possibility to follow the meetings of collectively elected organs.Article 24
1. Freedom of conscience and of religion is guaranteed.
2. Everyone is free to choose or to change his religion or beliefs, as well as to express them individually or collectively, in public or private life, through cult, education, practices or the performance of rituals.
3. No one may be compelled or prohibited to take part or not in a religious community or in religious practices or to make his beliefs or faith public.Article 25
No one may be subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading torture, punishment or treatment.Article 26
No one may be required to perform forced labor, except in cases of the execution of a judicial decision, the performance of military service, or for a service that results from a state of emergency, war or natural disaster that threatens human life or health.Article 27
1. No one's liberty may be taken away except in the cases and according to the procedures provided by law.
2. Freedom of a person may not be limited, except in the following cases:
a) when he is punished with imprisonment by a competent court;
b) for failure to comply with the lawful orders of the court or with an obligation set by law;
c) when there are reasonable suspicions that he has committed a criminal offense or to prevent the commission by him of a criminal offense or his escape after its commission;
d) for the supervision of a minor for purposes of education or for escorting him to a competent organ;
e) when a person is the carrier of a contagious disease, mentally incompetent and dangerous to society;
f) for illegal entry at state borders or in cases of deportation or extradition.
3. No one may be deprived of liberty just because he is not in a condition to fulfill a contractual obligation.Article 28
1. Everyone whose liberty has been taken away has the right to be notified immediately, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for this measure, as well as the accusation made against him. The person whose liberty has been taken away shall be informed that he has no obligation to make a declaration and has the right to communicate immediately with a lawyer, and he shall also be given the possibility to realize his rights.
2. The person whose liberty has been taken away, according to article 27, paragraph 2, subparagraph c), must be sent within 48 hours before a judge, who shall decide upon his pre-trial detention or release not later than 48 hours from the moment he receives the documents for review.
3. A person in pre-trial detention has the right to appeal the judge's decision. He has the right to be tried within a reasonable period of time or to be released on bail pursuant to law.
4. In all other cases, the person whose liberty is taken away extrajudicially may address a judge at anytime, who shall decide within 48 hours regarding the legality of this action.
5. Every person whose liberty was taken away pursuant to article 27, has the right to humane treatment and respect for his dignity.Article 29
1. No one may be accused or declared guilty of a criminal act that was not considered as such by law at the time of its commission, with the exception of cases, which at the time of their commission, according to international law, constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity.
2. No punishment may be given that is more severe than that which was contemplated by law at the time of commission of the criminal act.
3. A favorable criminal law has retroactive effect.Article 30
Everyone is considered innocent so long as his guilt is not proven by a final judicial decision.Article 31
During a criminal proceeding, everyone has the right:
a) to be notified immediately and in detail of the accusation made against him, of his rights, as well as to have the possibility created to notify his family or those close to him;
b) to have the time and sufficient facilities to prepare his defense;
c) to have the assistance without payment of a translator, when he does not speak or understand the Albanian language;
d) to be defended by himself or with the assistance of a legal defender chosen by him; to communicate freely and privately with him, as well as to be assured of free defense when he does not have sufficient means;
e) to question witnesses who are present and to seek the presentation of witnesses, experts and other persons who can clarify the facts.Article 32
1. No one may be obliged to testify against himself or his family or to confess his guilt.
2. No one may be declared guilty on the basis of data collected in an unlawful manner.Article 33
1. No one may be denied the right to be heard before being judged.
2. A person who is hiding from justice may not take advantage of this right.Article 34
No one may be punished more than one time for the same criminal act nor be tried again, except for cases when the re-adjudication of the case is decided on by a higher court, in the manner specified by law.Article 35
1. No one may be obliged, except when the law requires it, to make public data connected with his person.
2. The collection, use and making public of data about a person is done with his consent, except for the cases provided by law.
3. Everyone has the right to become acquainted with data collected about him, except for the cases provided by law.
4. Everyone has the right to request the correction or expunging of untrue or incomplete data or data collected in violation of law.Article 36
The freedom and secrecy of correspondence or any other means of communication are guaranteed.Article 37
1. The inviolability of the residence is guaranteed.
2. Searches of a residence, as well as the premises that are equivalent to it, may be done only in the cases and manner provided by law.
3. No one may be subjected to a personal search outside a criminal proceeding, with the exception of the cases of entry into the territory of the state and the leaving of it, or to avoid a risk that threatens public security.Article 38
1. Everyone has the right to choose his place of residence and to move freely to any part of the territory of the state.
2. No one may be hindered to go freely out of the state.Article 39
1. No Albanian citizen may be expelled from the territory of the state.
2. Extradition may be permitted only when it is expressly provided in international agreements, to which the Republic of Albania is a party, and only by judicial decision.
3. The collective expulsion of foreigners is prohibited. The expulsion of individuals is permitted under the conditions specified by law.Article 40
Foreigners have the right of refuge in the Republic of Albania according to law.Article 41
1. The right of private property is guaranteed.
2. Property may be gained by gift, inheritance, purchase, or any other classical means provided by the Civil Code.
3. The law may provide for expropriations or limitations in the exercise of a property right only for public interests.
4. The expropriations or limitations of a property right that are equivalent to expropriation are permitted only against fair compensation.
5. For disagreements connected with the extent of the compensation, a complaint may be filed in court.Article 42
1. The freedom, property, and rights recognized in the Constitution and by law may not be infringed without due process.
2. Everyone, to protect his constitutional and legal rights, freedoms, and interests, or in the case of an accusation raised against him, has the right to a fair and public trial, within a reasonable time, by an independent and impartial court specified by law.Article 43
Everyone has the right to appeal a judicial decision to a higher court, except when the Constitution provides otherwise.Article 44
Everyone has the right to be rehabilitated and/or indemnified in compliance with law if he is damaged because of an unlawful act, action or failure to act of the state organs.Chapter III--Political Rights and FreedomsArticle 45
1. Every citizen who has reached the age of 18, even on the date of the elections, has the right to elect and to be elected.
2. Citizens who have been declared mentally incompetent by a final court decision do not have the right to elect.
3. Convicts that are serving a sentence that deprives them of freedom have only the right to elect.
4. The vote is personal, equal, free and secret.Article 46
1. Everyone has the right to organize collectively for any lawful purpose.
2. The registration of organizations or societies in court is done according to the procedure provided by law.
3. Organizations or societies that pursue unconstitutional purposes are prohibited pursuant to law.Article 47
1. Freedom of peaceful meetings and without arms, as well the participation in them is guaranteed.
2. Peaceful meetings in squares and places of public passage are held in conformity with the law.Article 48
Everyone, by himself or together with others, may direct requests, complaints or comments to the public organs, which are obliged to answer in the time periods and conditions set by law.Chapter IV--Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and FreedomsArticle 49
1. Everyone has the right to earn the means of living by lawful work that he has chosen or accepted himself. He is free to choose his profession, place of work, as well as his own system of professional qualification.
2. Employees have the right to social protection of work.Article 50
Employees have the right to unite freely in labor organizations for the defense of their work interests.Article 51
1. The right of an employee to strike in connection with work relations is guaranteed.
2. Limitations on particular categories of employees may be established by law to assure essential social services.Article 52
1. Everyone has the right to social security in old age or when he is unable to work, according to a system set by law.
2. Everyone, who remains without work for reasons independent of their volition, and has no other means of support, has the right to assistance under the conditions provided by law.Article 53
1. Everyone has the right to get married and have a family.
2. Marriage and family enjoy special protection of the state.
3.. The entering into and dissolution of marriage are regulated by law.Article 54
1. Children, the young, pregnant women and new mothers have the right to special protection by the state.
2. Children born out of wedlock have equal rights with those born within marriage.
3. Every child has the right to be protected from violence, ill treatment, exploitation and their use for work, especially under the minimum age for work, which could damage their health and morals or endanger their life or normal development.Article 55
1. Citizens enjoy in an equal manner the right to health care from the state.
2. Everyone has the right to health insurance pursuant to the procedure provided by law.Article 56
Everyone has the right to be informed for the status of the environment and its protection.Article 57
1. Everyone has the right to education.
2. Mandatory school education is determined by law.
3. General high school public education is open for all.
4. Professional high school education and higher education can be conditioned only on criteria of abilities.
5. Mandatory education and general high school education in public schools are free.
6. Pupils and students may also be educated in private schools of all levels, which are created and operated on the basis of law.
7. The autonomy and academic freedom of higher education institutions are guaranteed by law.Article 58
1. Freedom of artistic creation and scientific research, placing in use, as well as profit from their results are guaranteed for all.
2. Copyright is protected by law.Chapter V--Social ObjectivesArticle 59
1. The state, within its constitutional powers and the means at its disposal, aims to supplement private initiative and responsibility with:
a) employment under suitable conditions for all persons who are able to work;
b) fulfillment of the housing needs of its citizens;
c) the highest possible standard of health, physical and mental;
d) education and qualification according to ability of children and the young, as well as unemployed persons;
e) a healthy and ecologically adequate environment for the present and future generations;
f) rational exploitation of forests, waters, pastures and other natural resources on the basis of the principle of sustainable development;
g) care and help for the aged, orphans and persons with disabilities;
h) development of sport and of recreation activities;
i) health rehabilitation, specialized education and integration in society of disabled people, as well as continual improvement of their living conditions;
j) protection of national cultural heritage and particular care for the Albanian language.
2. Fulfilment of social objectives may not be claimed directly in court. The law defines the conditions and extent to which the realization of these objectives can be claimed.Chapter VI--People's AdvocateArticle 60
1. The People's Advocate defends the rights, freedoms and lawful interests of individuals from unlawful or improper actions or failures to act of the organs of public administration.
2. The People's Advocate is independent in the exercise of his duties.
3. The People's Advocate has his own budget, which he administers himself. He proposes the budget pursuant to law.Article 61
1. The People's Advocate is elected by three-fifths of all members of the Assembly for a five-year period, with the right of reelection.
2. Any Albanian citizen with higher education, and with recognized knowledge and recognized activity in the field of human rights and law may be the People's Advocate.
3. The People's Advocate enjoys the immunity of a judge of the High Court.
4. The People's Advocate may not take part in any political party, carry on any other political, state or professional activity, nor take part in the management organs of social, economic and commercial organizations.Article 62
1. The People's Advocate may be discharged only on the reasoned complaint of not less than one-third of the deputies.
2. In this case, the Assembly makes a decision with three-fifths of all its members.Article 63
1. The People's Advocate presents an annual report before the Assembly.
2. The People's Advocate reports before the Assembly when it is requested of him, and he may request the Assembly to hear him on matters he determines important.
3. The People's Advocate has the right to make recommendations and to propose measures when he observes violations of human rights and freedoms by the public administration.
4. Public organs and officials are obligated to present to the People's Advocate all documents and information requested by him.Part Three--The AssemblyChapter I--Election and TermArticle 64
1. The Assembly consists of 140 deputies. One-hundred deputies are elected directly in single-member electoral zones with an approximate number of voters. Forty deputies are elected from the multi-name lists of parties or party coalitions according to their respective order.
2. The total number of deputies of a party or a party coalition shall be, to the closest possible extent, proportional to the valid votes won by them on the national scale in the first round of elections.
3. Parties that receive less than 2.5 per cent, and party coalitions that receive less than 4 per cent, of the valid votes on the national scale in the first round of elections do not benefit from their respective multi-name lists.Article 65
1. The Assembly is elected for four years.
2. Elections for the Assembly are held within 60 to 30 days before the end of the mandate and not later than 45 days after its dissolution.
3. The mandate of the Assembly continues until the first meeting of the new Assembly. In this interval, the Assembly may not issue laws or take decisions, except when extraordinary measures have been established.Article 66
The mandate of the Assembly is extended only in the case of war and for so long as it continues. When the Assembly is dissolved, it recalls itself.Article 67
1. The newly elected Assembly is called to its first meeting by the President of the Republic no later than 20 days from the conclusion of the elections.
2. If the President of the Republic does not exercise this power, the Assembly must convene itself within 10 days from the end of the term provided in paragraph 1 of this article.Chapter II--The DeputiesArticle 68
1. Candidates for deputy may be presented only by political parties, coalitions of parties, and voters.
2. The rules for the designation of candidates for deputy, for the organization and conduct of the elections, as well as the definition of electoral zones and the conditions of validity for elections, are regulated by the electoral law.Article 69
1. Without resigning from duty, the following may not run as candidates nor be elected deputies:
a) judges, prosecutors;
b) military servicemen on active duty;
c) staff of the police and of National Security;
d) diplomatic representatives;
e) chairmen of municipalities and communes as well as prefects in the places where they carry out their duties;
f) chairmen and members of the electoral commissions;
g) the President of the Republic and the high officials of the state Administration contemplated by law.
2. A mandate gained in violation of paragraph 1 of this article is invalid.Article 70
1. Deputies represent the people and are not bound by any obligatory mandate.
2. Deputies may not simultaneously exercise any other public duty with the exception of that of a member of the Council of Ministers. Other cases of incompatibility are specified by law.
3. Deputies may not carry out any profit-making activity that stems from the property of the state or of local government, nor may they acquire their property.
4. For every violation of paragraph 3 of this article, on the motion of the chairman of the Assembly or one-tenth of its members, the Assembly decides on sending the issue to the Constitutional Court, which determines the incompatibility.Article 71
1. The mandate of the deputy begins on the day when he is declared elected by the respective electoral commission.
2. The mandate of the deputy ends or is invalid, as the case may be:
a) when he does not take the oath;
b) when he resigns from the mandate;
c) when one of the conditions of inelectability contemplated in articles 69, and 70, paragraphs 2 and 3 is ascertained;
d) when the mandate of the Assembly ends;
e) when he is absent for more than six consecutive months in the Assembly without reason.
f) when he is convicted by a final court decision for commitment of a crime.Article 72
Before beginning the exercise of the mandate, the deputies take the oath in the Assembly.Article 73
1. A deputy does not bear responsibility for opinions expressed in the Assembly and votes given. This provision is not applicable in the case of defamation.
2. A deputy may not be criminally prosecuted without the authorization of the Assembly. Authorization is also required when he is to be arrested.
3. A deputy may be detained or arrested without authorization when he is apprehended during or immediately after the commission of a serious crime. In these cases, the General Prosecutor immediately notifies the Assembly, which, when it determines that the proceeding is misplaced, decides to lift the measure.
4. For issues contemplated in paragraphs 2 and 3, the Assembly decides by secret vote.Chapter III--Organization and FunctioningArticle 74
1. The Assembly conducts its annual work in two sessions. The first session begins on the third Monday of January and the second session on the first Monday of September.
2. The Assembly meets in extraordinary session when it is requested by the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister or by one-fifth of all the deputies.
3. Extraordinary sessions are called by the Speaker of the Assembly on the basis of a defined agenda.Article 75
1. The Assembly elects and discharges its chairman.
2. The Assembly is organized and functions according to regulations approved by the majority of all the members.Article 76
1. The Chairman chairs debates, directs the work, assures respect for the rights of the Assembly and its members, as well as represents the Assembly in relations with others.
2. The highest civil employee of the Assembly is the General Secretary.
3. Other services necessary for the functioning of the Assembly are carried out by other employees, as is specified in the internal regulations.Article 77
1. The Assembly elects standing committees from its ranks and may also establish special committees.
2. The Assembly has the right and, upon the request of one-fourth of its members is obliged, to designate investigatory committees to review a particular issue. Its conclusions are not binding on the courts, but they may be made known to the office of the prosecutor, which evaluates them according to legal procedures.
3. Investigatory committees operate according to the procedures set by law.Article 78
1. The Assembly decides with a majority of votes, in the presence of more than half of its members, except for the cases where the Constitution provides for a qualified majority.
2. Meetings of the deputies, which are convened without being called in accordance to the regulations, do not have any effect.Article 79
1. Meetings of the Assembly are open.
2. At the request of the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister or one-fifth of the deputies, meetings of the Assembly may be closed, when a majority of all its members have voted in favor of it.Article 80
1. The Prime Minister and any other member of the Council of Ministers is obligated to answer interpellances and questions of the deputies within three weeks.
2. A member of the Council of Ministers has the right to take part in meetings of the Assembly or of its committees; he is given the floor whenever he requests it.
3. The heads of state institutions, on request of the parliamentary committees, give explanations and inform on specific issues of their activity to the extent that law permits.Chapter IV--The Legislative ProcessArticle 81
1. The Council of Ministers, every deputy, and 20,000 electors each have the right to propose laws.
2. The following are approved by three-fifths of all members of the Assembly:
a) the laws for the organization and operation of the institutions provided for in the Constitution;
b) the law on citizenship;
c) the law on general and local elections;
d) the law on referenda;
e) the codes;
f) the law for the state of emergency;
g) the law on the status of public functionaries;
h) the law on amnesty;
i) the law on administrative divisions of the Republic.Article 82
1. The proposal of laws, when this is the case, must always be accompanied by a report that justifies the financial expenses for its implementation.
2. No non-governmental draft law that makes necessary an increase in the expenses of the state budget or diminishes income may be approved without taking the opinion of the Council of Ministers, which must be given within 30 days from the date of receiving the draft law.
3. If the Council of Ministers does not give an answer within the above term, the draft law passes for review according to the normal procedure.Article 83
1. A draft law is voted on three times: in principle, article by article, and in its entirety.
2. The Assembly may, at the request of the Council of Ministers or one-fifth of all the deputies, review and approve a draft law with an expedited procedure, but not sooner than one week from the beginning of the procedure of review.
3. The expedited procedure is not permitted for the review of the draft laws contemplated in Article 81, paragraph 2, with the exception of subparagraph "f."Article 84
1. President of the Republic promulgates the approved law within 20 days from its presentation.
2. A law is deemed promulgated if the President of the Republic does not exercise the rights provided for in paragraph 1 of this article and in paragraph 1 of article 85.
3. A law enters into force with the passage of not less than 15 days after its publication in the Official Journal.
4. In the case of extraordinary measures, as well as in cases of necessity and emergency, when the Assembly decides with a majority of all its members and the President of the Republic gives his consent, a law may enter into force immediately, but only after it is made known publicly. The law must be published in the first number of the Official Journal.Article 85
1. The President of the Republic has the right to return a law for review only once.
2. The decree of the President for the review of a law loses its effect when a majority of all the members of the Assembly vote against it.Part Four--The President of the RepublicArticle 86
1. The President of the Republic is the Head of State and represents the unity of the people.
2. Only an Albanian citizen by birth who has been a resident in Albania for not less than the past 10 years and who has reached the age of 40 may be elected President.Article 87
1. A candidate for President is proposed to the Assembly by a group of not less than 20 of its members. A member is not permitted to take part in more than one proposing group.
2. The President of the Republic is elected by secret vote and without debate by the Assembly by a majority of three-fifths of all its members.
3. When this majority is not reached in the first voting, a second voting takes place within 7 days from the day of the first voting.
4. When this majority is not reached even in the second voting, a third voting takes place within 7 days.
5. When there is more than one candidate and none of them has received the required majority, within 7 days, a fourth voting takes place between the two candidates who have received the greatest number of votes.
6. If even in the fourth voting neither of the two candidates has received the required majority, a fifth one takes place.
7. If even in the fifth voting neither of the two candidates has received the required majority, the Assembly is dissolved and new general elections take place within 60 days.
8. The new Assembly elects the President pursuant to the procedure contemplated by paragraphs 1 to 7 of this article. If even the new Assembly does not elect the President, the Assembly is dissolved and new general elections take place within 60 days.
9. The subsequent Assembly elects the President of the Republic by a majority of all its members.Article 88
1. The President of the Republic is in every case elected for 5 years, with the right of reelection only once.
2. The procedure for the election of the President begins no later than 30 days before the end of the previous presidential mandate.
3. The President begins his duties after he takes the oath before the Assembly, but not before the mandate of the President who is leaving has been completed. The President swears as follows:
"I swear that I will obey to the Constitution and laws of the country, that I will respect the rights and freedoms of citizens, protect the independence of the Republic, and I will serve the general interest and the progress of the Albanian People." The President may add: "So help me God!"
4. A President who resigns before the end of his mandate may not be a candidate in the presidential election that takes place after his resignation.Article 89
The President of the Republic may not hold any other public duty, may not be a member of a party or carry out other private activity.Article 90
1. The President of the Republic is not responsible for acts carried out in the exercise of his duty.
2. The President of the Republic may be discharged for serious violations of the Constitution and for the commission of a serious crime. In these cases, a proposal for the discharge of the President may be made by not less than one-fourth of the members of the Assembly and must be supported by not less than two-thirds of all its members.
3. The decision of the Assembly is sent to the Constitutional Court, which, when it verifies the guilt of the President of the Republic, declares his discharge from duty.Article 91
1. When the President of the Republic is temporarily unable to exercise his functions or his place remains vacant, the Chairman of the Assembly takes his place and exercises his powers.
2. In case the President cannot exercise his duty for more than 60 days, the Assembly by two-thirds of all its members decides on sending the issue to the Constitutional Court, which verifies conclusively the fact of his incapacity. In case of verification of incapacity, the place of the President remains vacant and the election of the new President begins within 10 days from the date of verification of incapacity.Article 92
The President also exercises these powers:
a) addresses messages to the Assembly;
b) exercises the right of pardon according to the law;
c) grants Albanian citizenship and permits it to be given up according to the law;
d) gives decorations and titles of honor according to the law;
e) accords the highest military ranks according to the law;
f) on the proposal of the Prime Minister, he appoints and withdraws plenipotentiary representatives of the Republic of Albania to other states and international organizations;
g) accepts letters of credentials and the withdrawal of diplomatic representatives of other states and international organizations accredited to the Republic of Albania;
h) signs international agreements according to the law;
i) upon proposal of the Prime Minister, he appoints the director of the intelligence service of the state;
j) nominates the Chairman of the Academy of Sciences and the rectors of universities pursuant to law;
k) sets the date of the elections for the Assembly, for the organs of local power and for the conduct of referenda;
l) requests opinions and information in writing from the directors of state institutions for issues that have to do with their duties.« Back